In the late 20's - early 30-ies life of kola Sami fundamentally changed. The industrialization, militarization, colonization edge led to the forced relocation of the Saami from their traditional lands, the loss of several pastures.
In the 1927-1929 on the Kola Peninsula collectivization began. Collectivization completed at 1940
"Since 1929, started the organization of collective reindeer herding households. The five-year plan to 1933 was scheduled to organize a collective farms in all Lappish pogost. Nine-tenths falls herders must enter into collective farms.
Reindeer herders, members of the collective farm, making all their fishing gear and all the reindeer ... But the poor people entering into collective farms, reindeer, for this was not enough. In such cases come to the aid - gives money to purchase deer ...
By spring 1930, organized collective farms in the pogost Kamensky, Iokangsky, Kildinsky, Lovozersky and Voronensky ".
The former collective farms set up in the Murmansk region, were mainly one-national consisted of relatives.
Just as in the whole country, collectivization on the Kola Peninsula has become one of the drama pages of the history of the province. Collective farms are often built not on a voluntary basis, and under pressure, but because broken. So a collective "Tundra" left 23 farms. In 1931 collapsed Sosnowski and collective Iokangsky. In Lovozersky area of Voroninsky collective farms have reached 12, from Ivanovo - 6, from Lovozersky - 8.
On the formation of collective farms connected first arrests among the inhabitants of the Kola tundra. In 1930, was arrested three representatives of the Sami people in 1931 - 1, 1933 - 6, 1934 - 2.
Mass arrests among the Saami began in 1937 in the same year, the first representative of the Sami people has been sentenced to capital punishment for "treason and espionage." The first victim of Stalin's repressions became Andrei Romanovich Galkin - a resident of the village Ozerki polar regions. The sentence rendered 19 Sept, 1937, and resulted in the execution in 2 days. Convicts are often alleged "spying", "treason", "anti-propaganda and agitation", "armed insurrection", "terrorism".
Tragic was the fate of reindeer herders and fishermen kolkhoz "Tundra" (stanovische (camp) Great Western People polar regions). A long time, the documents in his stories were not known. Kolkhoz, united 15 peasant households, was founded in 1931, Male reindeer husbandry, women - salmon fishing. Kolkhoz families have a good profit. A fortunate life was destroyed on 9 Aug., 1937, when the first arrests took place. A few days later, arrests happened again. In 1940 kolkhoz families forcibly removed in the Kola region of the river Tuloma. According to historians eviction residents stanovischa involves the creation of Germany, in agreement with the USSR on the coast of the Barents Sea secret base "Nord". In the same year were carried out new arrests. The daughter of one of those arrested Pelageja P. Chaporova reminisces: "My sister Fekla, which was in the pioneer camp in the Ura-Guba, as the daughter of enemy people they cast out, and she walked to get home. The families of collective farmers were left without a breadwinner and straggled along white light. So a kolkhoz was repressed".
Total in 1937 in a case of espionage were sentenced to 6 people shot: Semyakin MM, Choporov PG, Choporov IG, Choporov PG (Jr.), glasses AK, Alekseev FS (nationality - Karel).
The wave of arrests swept Kola tundra. "People was took out even from God forgotten corners, two or three hundred kilometers from the center of region. Every single Sami village suffered. In the Kola region there were Vosmus, Lapland, Lutto, Nivanskyul, Padun, Pulozero, Restikent, Charvozero, Yurkino in Lovozerskom -- Voronov, Kamenka, Kanevka, Krasnoschele, Lovozero, Chalmny-Varre in the Sami - Varzino, Iokanga, Ponoy, Sosnovka in the Kirov - Girvas-Lake, Zasheek, Imandra, Ekostrov in Polar - Minkino, Ozerko. "
People were arrested whole families, regardless of age, as 72-year-old resident of the village Ozerki - born in Norway Yegor A. Snaula and his six sons. Only two youngest children were sentenced to 8 and 10 years in the camps, which was tantamount to death sentences imposed on the head of the family and older brother.
According to the Murmansk historian S.N. Daschinskiy: "The reasons for the arrests were very different: unflattering comments on a collective farm, drunkard or fingered Chairman - anti-Soviet propaganda; communicated at least once with the reindeer herders from neighboring Finland and Norway - espionage, have for who you are previously worked or was familiar - the relationship with the enemy of the people. There have been dramatic cases: convict immediate family members for liaison with each other, and even his wife ... for the relationship with her husband. "
However, bodies of the NKVD were not enough cases of disclosure of "spies" single. To confirm the effectiveness of its activities required to loud case of a joint group conspirators. And this case was uncovered. "In 1938, on the Kola Peninsula "exposed" Saami nationalist rebel-subversive organization. "However, the NKVD understood that poorly, people may not be headed by such an organization. Therefore, the leadership "rebels" attributed Russian Vasily Kondratevichu Alymov - one of the first expert of local history of Murman, was at the creation of Regional Museum Society and regional studies, economists, ethnography, the author of numerous articles on the history and ethnography of Sami reindeer husbandry. Vasily Kondratyevich repeatedly visited the Sami pogost, enjoyed well-deserved respect among the Saami, helped in organizing the Lapps expedition of Russian Geographical Society on the Kola Peninsula, the archaeological expedition of A. Schmidt.
Among other things Alymov attributed subversive and rebel work: to give directions to burn reindeer moss on pastures, develop disease in deer and analyze labor discipline in collective farms, destroy livestock deer.
Total's commitment to "Sami nationalist rebel subversive and rebel third of the 28 people were repressed. All participants' Sami case were convicted three UNKVD of the Leningrad Region 15 October, 1938: 15 shot (three Russians, seven Sami, five Komi), 13 were under 10 years of camps (eight Sami, three committees and two Nenets). < br>
Here are the names of all victims of repression. By capital punishment sentences Vasily Kondratyevich Alymov, Vikenty Ivanovich Artiev, Alexander Artiev, Ivan Artiev, Nikon Petrovich Gerasimov, Stepan Petrovich Gorbuntsov, Simon P. Dmitriev, Grigory Gavrilovich Kanev, Alexander Matrehin, Alex Lukich Matrehin, James I. Osipov, Alexander S. Salazkin, Alexei Modestovich Sovkin, Nikolai Yuriev, Alexander Afanasevich Yakovlev. The 10-year camps - Stepan Feoktistovich Valeev, Alexander Gerasimov, Andrei Isakovich Gerasimov, Andrei M. Dmitriev, Yegor V. Kanev, Gregory M. Moshnikov, Konstantin G. Moshnikov, Yefim Y. Osipov, Ivan Andreevich Ruzhenkov, Alexei Ignatevich Selivanov, James N. Turkachev, Paul I. Fefelov, Fedor V. Chuprov.
All charges were fabricated by investigators and it looks absurd. Already in the 1940-1941 city "Sami case admitted forged themselves members of the NKVD".
In just a few years victims of Stalin's repressions were 97 representatives of the Sami people. By capital punishment in the 1937-1938 - 37 people were sentenced. The last time firing resulted in the execution of the sentence 21 Nov., 1938 in the 1940's sentence had been different times of corrective labor camps. Among them, a resident of village. Restikent Kola area retiree Vasily Kirillovich Moshnikov (1940, 5 years ITL); herdsmen kolkhoz "Vosmus" Fedot Timofeyevich Moshnikov (1943, 8 years old ITL); herdsmen kolkhoz "Auto-Varre" Prokopy Matrehin S. (1940, 3 years ITL); sailor from the village. Gremikha Jakov A. Matrehin (1946, 6 years old ITL) and many others.
Article Mihailova E.R. "Reprisals against the Kola Sami." Cultural almanac ASTES number 5.